Childrens Place at the Heart of Recovery - A Program of Youth and Family Enrichment Services
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Risk Factors

Environmental Risk Factors

     Economic and social deprivation
     Social isolation
     Neighborhood and community disorganization
     Transition and mobility especially between elementary, middle and high schools
     Community laws and norms favorable toward use
     Availability at home, school, neighborhood

Developmental Risk Factors

       Family history of alcoholism/addiction quadruples risk of becoming addicted
       Family management problems
       Early antisocial behavior combined with withdrawal and/or hyperactivity
       Parental drug use or positive attitude towards use
       Academic failure not tied to ability, especially in mid to late elementary school
       Little commitment to school
       Alienation, rebelliousness, lack of social bonding
       Antisocial behavior in early adolescence; juvenile delinquency behavior precedes
        drug abuse, fighting and general aggressiveness
       Friends who use drugs is one of the strongest predictors
       Favorable attitude toward drug use
       Early first use of drugs prior to age 15-twice the risk of addiction

Community Risk Factors

       Availability of drugs
       Availability of firearms
       Community laws and norms favorable toward drug use, firearms, and crime
       Media portrayals of violence
       Transition and mobility
       Low neighborhood attachment and community disorganization


David Hawkins, Richard Califnao, D.M. Lisher, University of Washington, 1986